Friday, May 29, 2015

Exploring the Christian Way of Life: The Identity of Jesus - Divine Messiah Part 4

This is the fourth and final of a paper on Jesus as divine Messiah. See part 1, part 2, and part 3.

The closest parallel to the New Testament’s divine Christology is the Enochic Christology concerning the Son of Man in the Book of Parables in 1 Enoch 37-71.[1] There are many parallels between the ways Jesus is portrayed as Messiah in the New Testament and the Enochic Son of Man that are unparalleled claims concerning messianic figures elsewhere.[2] Key among those are pre-existence, the receipt of worship, and association with the figure of divine wisdom. Let’s look at 1 Enoch 48:1-49:4 as an example.

In the Book of Parables, the son of man is a messianic figure. The text we’re looking at begins in verses 2 and 3 with a clear statement of idyllic pre-existence on the part of the son of man.[3] He was known, named, and chosen by God for a specific task before creation. In verse 6, it goes even farther to posit actual pre-existence (not just as an idea, but as a being) prior to creation.[4] Verses 4 and 5 go on to describe the son of man carrying out messianic tasks, bringing about the fulfillment of the promise to Abraham by bringing in the gentiles into the people of God. As a result he received worship and also brought glory to God. If we were uncertain of the messianic theme, the rest of 1 Enoch 48 makes that clear, being full with stock apocalyptic messianic themes, especially in the conclusion in verse 10 where the son of man is called the ‘Anointed One.’

The first four verses of chapter 49 segue smoothly into a discussion of wisdom themes, something not completely missing from chapter 48 (see 48:7). Here, though, it is made explicit in verse 3 that the son of man will possess the spirit of wisdom that will enable him to instruct and judge, which are Solomonic themes. However, the way he will judge goes beyond Solomon, since he can judge things that are secret (vs. 4). When one reads that in conjunction with the description of his glory in verse 2 it sounds as if he possesses God’s wisdom, or more accurately, his spirit of wisdom to a much fuller degree than any human before or after him. Here in 1 Enoch 48 as elsewhere in the Book of Parables, the pre-existent son of man is closely associated with, but not identified as pre-existent heavenly wisdom.[5]

This passage contains ideas that seem like a more complete candidate to stand as the primary background to New Testament Christology.[6] Jesus called himself the Son of Man and the themes from this chapter match up well with the major emphases we have found in the Christological hymns. The Messiah in the Book of Parables was a divine figure, full of divine wisdom and of the divine spirit (similar to claims made in Colossians 1:15-20), who pre-existed in heaven. However, his subordination to and difference from Yahweh is also very clear. He is the supreme agent of Yahweh who has his authority and carries out the tasks of bringing eschatological salvation and revealing God’s will. The Son of Man is very far along the spectrum of deity, but he clearly stops short of where Yahweh is.

Does this last conclusion mesh with what we find in the New Testament? In some ways it does very well in perhaps the clearest discussion of the status of the Messiah Jesus in the New Testament, I Corinthians 15:25-28:

25 For he must reign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 26 The last enemy to be destroyed is death. 27 For “God has put all things in subjection under his feet.” But when it says, “All things are put in subjection,” it is plain that this does not include the one who put all things in subjection under him. 28 When all things are subjected to him, then the Son himself will also be subjected to the one who put all things in subjection under him, so that God may be all in all (NRSV).

Here the reign of the Messiah is said to have a definite duration, until all of his enemies are defeated. Then, he will no longer rule and will give up that rule to Yahweh to rule directly, and he will be subordinate to him.[7] Until that happens, there is no difference in status from the perspective of creation because the Messiah is acting as the authorized agent of God on earth. Of course, as Ciampa and Rosner point out, the Messiah is in actuality subordinate the entire time.[8] That may be underscored by noticing the simple use of the appellation, ‘the Son,’[9] perhaps implying that even if there is no visible difference in status temporarily; there is still an emphasis on Yahweh being primary.[10]

Let’s cycle back to Philippians 2:5-11. Clearly verses 10 and 11 fit smoothly with 1 Cor. 15:25-28. When Christ completes his task he will have achieved the highest honor. At that point he can turn the kingdom over to God with his job done. Then, presumably he returns to role he held prior to his deployment as Messiah, but possessing more honor and the same or a higher status having been bestowed the divine name.[11] This, then, places boundaries on how we are to understand verse 6, unless we are to make Paul incoherent. Being in the form of God and having equality with God should not be understood as statements claiming that Jesus was on the same point in the spectrum of divinity as Yahweh. To say that Jesus was in the form of God could mean many things, and it is not at all clear, when the above argument is taken into account, that it claims an equivalent divine ontology as that which Yahweh possesses. Reumann, after a lengthy discussion of possible understandings opts for ‘in the sphere of God.’[12] This would fit very well with the Christology of 1 Enoch, as that is precisely where the Son of Man existed prior to creation.

To sum up, we have confirmed our observation from the first paper: early Christians certainly saw Jesus as a pre-existent divine being. Now we have added precision to that statement and confirmed another observation from that paper. Jesus is the divine Messiah, enthroned in his resurrection. His primary function is to act as the authoritative representative of God who brings about eschatological salvation by defeating all of God’s enemies. He is full of the divine spirit of wisdom, which allows him to reveal God’s will (both as a way of life and in judgment) and bring about the new creation. At that point he will have accomplished his task and will cease to function as God’s intermediary, as no intermediary will be needed. Jesus possessed the highest status that anyone but Yahweh could attain, but a clear distinction and subordination was maintained, at least initially. In the Gospel of John we could start to see that distinction break down.[13] That trend continued unabated for centuries, while the emphasis on Jesus as Messiah decreased. My next paper will explore the Christology of several key figures in the Early, Medieval, and Reformation era church to see how they participated in that movement.


[1] There has been a developing consensus among Enoch experts that the Book of Parables was probably written in the latter half of the first century B.C.E or the early part of the first century C.E. See the articles of Bock 2013 and Charlesworth 2013. Charlesworth’s article is particularly forceful and makes a strong argument that the Book of Parables was written in Galilea and that we should expect that Jesus had direct contact with its community of origin. Bock provides a thorough and detailed history of scholarship. On the dating see also e.g., the evidence in Waddell 2011, pp. 22-27. Nickelsburg and VanderKam 2012 opt for a date around the turn of the era (pp. 58-63), though preferring one on the B.C.E. side.
[2] See Waddell 2011 pp.178-201, esp. p. 182.
[3] See the important work of Hammerton-Kelly 1973, pp. 15-21 for a discussion of different types of pre-existence.
[4] Nickelsburg and VanderKam 2012, ad loc.
[5] Nickelsburg and VanderKam 2012, ad loc.
[6] In addition to its correlation with Pauline themes, Nickelsburg and VanderKam 2012 p. 168, claim there are “structural functional parallels” with Markan predictions of the suffering Son of Man in Mk. 8:31, 9:31, and 10:33-34.
[7] I found Conzelmann  1975 ad loc. to be the most helpful discussion of this passage.
[9] As noted by Fitzmyer 2008 ad loc., this is the only time Paul uses this ‘absolute’ expression.
[10] I suspect viewing this as a statement about ontology is probably going too far. However, for the purposes of Systematic Theology, there still may be ways to affirm the import of this passage and still avoid a subordinationist Christology. See Thiselton 2000, pp. 1237-39. This will be a necessary but minor focus in subsequent papers.
[11] McGrath 2009, pp. 50-51. This passage would not work as an encouragement to selflessness (as Fee 1995 persuasively argues) if this were not the case.
[12] Reumann 2008, ad loc.
[13] See the discussion of the Johannine prologue in my first paper as well as my discussion of John 1:35-51 here.

Thursday, May 28, 2015

Exploring the Christian Way of Life: The Identity of Jesus - Divine Messiah Part 3

This is part 3 of a paper on Jesus as divine Messiah. See part 1 and part 2.

Possibly the clearest passage on the topic from the undisputed Pauline epistles comes in 2 Corinthians 3:1-4:7. We will focus on several key verses, starting with the climax in 4:4-6:

4In their case the god of this world has blinded the minds of the unbelievers, to keep them from seeing the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God. 5For we do not proclaim ourselves; we proclaim Jesus Christ as Lord and ourselves as your slaves for Jesus’ sake. 6For it is the God who said, “Let light shine out of darkness,” who has shone in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ (NRSV).

Here, Paul describes Jesus in terms of light, glory, and the image of God. In other words, he is the supreme revelation of God. Here Paul is combining two strands of his Christology. Jesus is acting as the second Adam, being the perfect image, but he is far surpassing anything that Adam was ever capable of. He embodies God’s wisdom, herself, and is the prototype of the new humanity, the new creation.[1] That glory is available to us in the story of Jesus the risen, Messianic Lord. When our eyes are opened to accept and submit to that proclamation, we receive that glory for ourselves.[2]

When we tie this back to some of the earlier verses, we get a clearer picture of how Paul viewed Jesus. The statements about a greater glory than the Torah being revealed in Jesus in 3:7-11 are directly interacting with Sir. 24:19-21. Perhaps this, along with Jesus’ own actions, is what enabled Christians to move past strict Torah observance. Jesus was the ultimate revelation of God’s glory and the greatest source of God’s wisdom, both in terms of guidance but especially salvation. This superiority made following Torah unnecessary.[3]

Hebrews too shows dependence upon Wisdom Christology, though this may not be independent of the influence of Paul.[4] The letter’s introduction is a compact statement of Jesus’ divinity a la wisdom.

“Long ago God spoke to our ancestors in many and various ways by the prophets, 2but in these last days he has spoken to us by a Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, through whom he also created the worlds. 3He is the reflection of God’s glory and the exact imprint of God’s very being, and he sustains all things by his powerful word. When he had made purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high, 4having become as much superior to angels as the name he has inherited is more excellent than theirs” (Heb. 1:1-4 NRSV).

Several matters require brief comment. First, this passage is about Jesus’ status. He has the highest status that one can get. Second he is also the definitive source of revelation of God.[5] Third, we again have a tie of both creational and soteriological functions. As Johnson notes, “the protological function of the Son points to his eschatological victory.”[6] That could be another piece of the puzzle that explains why early Christians seized on Wisdom Christology.

While it may be going too far to say, that the resurrection is viewed as an enthronement, “…by which he entered fully into the life and rule of God as ‘Lord.’”[7] Clearly the resurrection was the cause of attributions of divinity to Jesus. His status as resurrected Lord in heaven allowed the early Christians to see Jesus as a pre-existent heavenly being.[8]

Are these connections in Paul and Hebrews enough to posit a Wisdom Christology? With Fee, I want to urge some caution.[9] While the conceptual ties are there, nowhere is Jesus called wisdom in the sense of personified wisdom.[10] He is the full revelation of God and the agent and sustainer of creation, as was wisdom, so wisdom traditions must stand somewhere in the background and add depth to the early church’s proclamation of Jesus. But without clearer statements it is hard to make the assertion that we have a Wisdom Christology in Paul, even if it might fit in Hebrews. It seems as if wisdom language is being used in both cases to clarify or expand on things believed about Jesus on other grounds. In particular, the contrast with language surrounding kingship is stunning. Even in Hebrews, one gets the sense that Wisdom Christology isn’t at the epicenter. Jesus enthronement at his resurrection is. The language of kingship, lordship, and messianic status are shot through all of the New Testament. Perhaps we need to revisit messianic beliefs in early Judaism to see if we can find the root of some of the early Christian beliefs about Jesus.

It is interesting that it is not only texts with ties to Wisdom that suggest pre-existence on the part of Jesus. We also find it in a much more straight forwardly messianic text like Philippians 2:5-11. Pre-existence is clearly predicated of him in 2:6, where the state of Jesus prior to the incarnation is described. His existence was in heaven. This much we can say without much controversy.[11] The Messianic import of the text is also clear from the exultation he receives in verses 10-11, as is clearly seen when cross referencing it with Paul’s statements in 1 Corinthians 15 and Romans 14.[12] Thus, I would argue that Wisdom Christology is a secondary development, and that we see divinity in some sense (heavenly pre-existence, if not more than that) predicated of the Messiah Jesus as the resurrected Messiah. This, then, pushes us back to look for other Jewish sources that allow us to make sense of all of the data.

[1] See the excellent exegesis of Thrall 1994, ad loc. for a fuller discussion. Also see Matera 2003 for a discussion of possible texts lying behind the OT allusion in vs. 6.
[2] See Thrall 1994, pp. 318-20 for a fuller exploration of the “Christophany” of 4:4, 6.
[3] I will note that this line of argument is my own and not reflected in the major commentaries on 2 Cor. that I consulted.
[4] Hebrews 13:23 mentions connection to Timothy.
[5] Koester 2001, ad loc.
[6] Johnson 2006, p. 67.
[7] Ibid, p. 72.
[8] Hamerton-Kelly 1973, p. 123.
[9] Fee 2007, pp. 317-25. Fee exceeds caution in outright disparagement, which I think goes too far.
[10] Try as I might, I couldn’t find a way to see it in 1 Cor. 1:24. I think the reading of Thiselton 2000, ad loc. is sound, calling Jesus an actualization of God’s wisdom.
[11] See, e.g., O’Brien 1991 ad loc., Fee 1995 ad loc., and Bockmuehl 1998 ad loc.
[12] See the concise argument ad loc. in Bockmuehl 1998. 

Wednesday, May 27, 2015

Exploring the Christian Way of Life: The Identity of Jesus - Divine Messiah Part 2

This is part 2 of a paper on Jesus as divine Messiah. For part 1, click here.

Revelation is not exceptional in showing great devotion and worship to Jesus. As Larry Hurtado has argued in many places,[1] as far back as we can tell the churches exhibited a very high Christology that honored Jesus through a variety of devotional practices.[2] Particularly noteworthy is the way in which Jesus devotion was public and corporate, not private and individual like the worship of other intermediary figures like angels.[3] With the limited scope of this paper we will focus on fragments of confessional material that we find in the New Testament.[4]

The first text we will look at is Colossians 1:15-20.

15He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation; 16for in him all things in heaven and on earth were created, things visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or powers—all things have been created through him and for him. 17He himself is before all things, and in him all things hold together. 18He is the head of the body, the church; he is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, so that he might come to have first place in everything. 19For in him all the fullness of God was pleased to dwell, 20and through him God was pleased to reconcile to himself all things, whether on earth or in heaven, by making peace through the blood of his cross.

Most scholars agree that what we have here is an early Christian hymn or confession which the author of Colossians incorporated into his letter.[5] It has been argued by many that the passage as a whole reflects a Wisdom Christology which views wisdom as a personification of God like what is found in texts like Wisdom of Solomon 7-9 and Sirach 24.[6] Let’s take a brief detour to look at wisdom in these texts.[7]

Wisdom 7-9 is a eulogy on the figure of Wisdom.[8] The author proceeds to praise Wisdom as the source of all good things and offers her praise –  like that due to God – heaping compliments by calling her things like “unpolluted,” “beneficent,” “steadfast,” “all-powerful,” and “penetrating through all spirits” (Wis. 7:22, 23). She is called “a reflection of eternal light, a spotless mirror of the working of God, and an image of his goodness” (Wis. 7:26 NRSV). Later she is compared to and said to exceed anything in creation and indeed to rule it (Wis. 7:29-8:1). Wisdom is good like God, but also accessible.[9] It emanates from him and is his image or copy, carrying out divine function.[10] If we skip ahead to chapter 9 we find similar statements in more detail. God created by his wisdom[11] and through wisdom, who sits near his throne, he rules (Wis. 9:1-4). By wisdom we can come to know God (Wis. 9:5-6). The chapter closes in vv. 17-18 with similarly lofty statements about Wisdom, perhaps echoing Isaiah 40:1-7. Salvation comes through Wisdom, who makes paths straight by teaching people how to please God. That is because salvation is a new creation and is realized by living according to creational intentions.[12] Final judgment brings liberation from chaos and life lived in accordance with Wisdom.[13]

Briefly I will mention Sirach 24 as well. It exhibits many of the same core themes as Wisdom of Solomon, including her role in creation (Sir. 24:1-7). She emanates from the mouth of God (Sir. 24:3). Wisdom is the source of God’s blessing (Sir. 24:19-21) and is singly focused one place, in the Torah.

Two of the most important Jewish writings in the Greco-Roman period, one Palestinian and one from the Diaspora follow a similar pattern, though the Wisdom of Solomon is much more developed. God is transcendent and acts in the world to create, guide, and save his people, through his personification, his perfect image, Wisdom.

When we go back to Colossians 1:15-20, we see many of the same themes applied to Jesus. Jesus created, was the image of the invisible God, representing and revealing him.[14] He has a place of authority over the created order and has a special role in relation to God’s people (just like the Torah did). Rather than listing a litany of divine attributes like the author of Wisdom of Solomon, the author of Colossians simply states that the fullness of God dwelled in Jesus. Through Jesus, God saved his people. Colossians has a particular focus on the creation to salvation pattern found in the Wisdom of Solomon, stressing the eschatological element in calling Jesus the firstborn from the dead.[15] Conceptual ties are there.

It is unfortunate that we do not have a resolution on the authorship of Colossians. If it were written by Paul it would push the date for a clear, divine Christology of some sort to within a generation of Jesus’ death. While I think a strong case can be made, I do not want to ground my overall argument on something so hotly disputed in contemporary scholarship.[16] Even so, if the author of Colossians was citing something conventional, then by the end of the first century, both attribution of divinity and a Christology paralleled by statements in Wisdom literature about divine Wisdom was at least relatively uncontroversial,[17] which means that it would have been fairly developed, probably by the 70s at the latest and perhaps earlier. In fact I suspect earlier, especially since he was writing in Paul’s name.  So let’s ask another question. Do the views presented in Colossians 1:15-20 have roots or parallels in the uncontested Pauline letters? Let’s look at a passage in 2 Corinthians, though not a hymn or creedal text, since it is of undisputed Pauline authorship.

[1] His most detailed treatment is in Hurtado 2003 and is the most important contemporary work on early Christology.
[2] As Hurtado notes on p. 137, what sets early Christians apart is the pattern, how thoroughly Jesus devotion permeated every aspect of religious activity.
[3] Ibid., p. 199.
[4] Hengel 1983, pp. 95-99 notes the centrality of hymns, as key didactic tools that also were a “medium for development of Christological thinking” p. 95.
[5] See e.g., Wilson 2005 and especially Dunn 1996.
[6] So Dunn 1996, p. 88, who pushes back against seeing wisdom as an intermediary figure in these texts. Kolarcik 1997 p. 505 agrees that what we have in Wisdom of Solomon is a personification.

[7] I draw on these rather than the writings of Philo because Sirach is definitely older and Wisdom is possibly older and are more likely to have influenced the hymn writer (I believe Paul used Wisdom of Solomon in Romans and thus that it was written in the 40s CE at the absolute latest).
[8] Kolarcik 1997, ad loc.
[9] Ibid., ad loc. points out that Wisdom penetrating all spirits is a Stoic idea describing the presence of the spirit of Wisdom.
[10] Ibid.
[11] God’s word and wisdom are placed in parallel in Wis. 9:1-2.
[12] Kolarcik 1992, pp. 102-04.
[13] Ibid., p. 98.
[14] Sumney 2008, ad loc.
[15] Ibid, p. 72 notices how creation and salvation are tied together, but not that Wisdom of Solomon has the same pattern.
[16] See the recent defense of Pauline authorship by Campbell 2014, pp. 260-309
[17] On “fullness of deity” “… the absolute use of the phrase here, without an explanatory genitive, suggests that this is something which our author could assume to be familiar to his readers.” Wilson 2005 p. 152. 

Tuesday, May 26, 2015

Exploring the Christian Way of Life: The Identity of Jesus - Divine Messiah Part 1

Unfortunately it didn't take much to push a winter release of my paper to the summer. Anyways, here it is:

In our last paper we looked at the identity of Jesus as presented in the Gospels. We noted that Jesus is primarily identified as Messiah. As I’ve studied further, I’ve become more convinced that Jesus messianic identity is the center of Christology. As Michael Bird put it, “the messianic identity of Jesus is the…most basic claim of early Christology.”[1] At the same time we noted that aspects of each of the Gospels suggest that the writers saw Jesus as divine, especially in the Gospel of John. Why? One could be the Messiah without being divine. It also seems that the clearest claims of divine identity are presented more in the way the Evangelists interpret the meaning of Jesus than at the core of the historical tradition.[2] Even before we get that far, though, we need to know what it means to call someone divine in the ancient world, as that may not have meant the same thing then as it does now. Then we will look at the senses in which the New Testament writers claim divinity for Jesus and try to understand the reasons behind it. We will conclude with a discussion of the implications of divine identity on messianic identity.

As is well known, in Greco-Roman culture, divinity ranged on a spectrum, with the high gods at the top and divinized humans near the bottom.[3] How did Jews view things? Both James McGrath and Bart Ehrman have made convincing arguments that many Jews, too, viewed things as ranging on a spectrum.[4] The post-exilic work, 1 Chronicles, in 29:20-23, describes David as receiving prostration (a form of worship) in conjunction with God, and Solomon as sitting on the throne of Yahweh. Both of those actions would seem to recognize some sort of divine identity on the part of David and Solomon. Psalm 45:6-7 goes even further, “6Your throne, O God, endures forever and ever. Your royal scepter is a scepter of equity; 7you love righteousness and hate wickedness. Therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness beyond your companions;” (NRSV). “God, your God” is referencing two different individuals by the identifier ‘God,’ the first being the king.[5] In other Jewish literature from outside the canon and artifacts from the period, you can see similar honors as granted to various figures as well as prayers to various mediators.[6] At the same time YHWH is clearly at one end of the spectrum and in a class by himself. Only YHWH can receive sacrificial worship and the use of icons or idols in worship is strictly forbidden.[7] Certainly, on the other hand, some Jews denied the presence of a broad spectrum; for them only YHWH was divine.[8] Jesus followers, as ordinary Jews, could fall anywhere on this spectrum. What we cannot do is decide before we begin our study what the followers of Jesus must have believed. Options were available to them. All of this needs to be kept in mind as we explore the ways in which the New Testament presents Jesus as being divine. Where on the spectrum are they putting him?[9] Is he being equated with YHWH, or is he in an intermediate position? How clear and consistent is the evidence?

Let’s start at the end of the first century and work our way backwards. Clearly, Jesus was viewed as divine in a significant sense by Christians by the end of the first century. Pliny, a Roman governor, in a letter to Trajan in the second decade of the second century, wrote that the Christians sang “hymns to Christ as a god.[10]” We have every reason to believe that his description was accurate, as we have Christian textual evidence to support that claim. Revelation 5, most likely written at the tail end of the first century, contains two brief hymns of praise to Jesus.

The scene begins by looking for one who is worthy to open the seal. No human or angel is found.[11] As Keener points out, the question must point back to the hymn of 4:11, where God is the one who is worthy and full of power.[12] This splits all of reality into God and everyone else.

After receiving the negative answer that no one besides God is worthy, one is found; Jesus, described in thoroughly Messianic terms. This seems to place Jesus as an exalted, divine king, a claim not uncommon in the Roman Empire.[13] However as Malin and Pilch also state, Jesus’ status exceeds that of all (divine) kings on the earth.[14] Jesus, as Messiah, is worthy, and thus also receives worship from the elders, as God did. Clearly Jesus kingship is transcendent and greater than any of the kings of the earth. He is greater than anyone except God.

Jesus was worthy because he “has conquered.” In verse 9 we find out that conquering was performed by being slain and winning the release of God’s people who were made into a kingdom of priests with ruling function.[15] It seems here that we have a merging of two Old Testament traditions, one being the Exodus and the other being the vision of Daniel 7.[16] Jesus is the paschal lamb; sacrificed to bring about the release of God’s people. As in Exodus 19:5b-6 the purpose of the divine action was so that “you shall be my treasured possession out of all the peoples. Indeed, the whole earth is mine, 6but you shall be for me a priestly kingdom and a holy nation” (NRSV). Also, Jesus is the Son of Man of Daniel 7 to whom, in 7:14, ‘”was given dominion and glory and kingship, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that shall not pass away, and his kingship is one that shall never be destroyed” (NRSV). Jesus, as Son of Man, was acting as the divine mediator, recapitulating the Exodus in saving God’s people by allowing them to escape the judgment. As Messiah he carried out the task of the Son of Man, which was the universalizing of God’s action in the Exodus. I believe it is critical to note Blount’s point that there is no emphasis here on Jesus’ death being expiatory. Jesus’ death instead reveals God’s identity and clarifies how God rules and liberates.[17] Jesus receives worship because he carries out the divine task in the divine way, perfectly revealing the divine being.


[1] Bird 2012, p. 4.
[2] This is a point at which I disagree with Bauckham 2008, pp. 18-31 and those who follow him. Telling stories of Jesus doing the same types of activities as YHWH in the Old Testament does not imply divine identity, but more on that later.
[3] See Ehrman 2014, pp. 11-45 for an interesting discussion.
[4] McGrath 2009 pp. 3-37, Ehrman 2014, pp. 47-84.
[5] Ehrman 2014, p. 79, c.f., Kraus 1988 ad loc. Neither Goldingay 2006 nor Cragie 2004 draw attention to this, but I agree with Ehrman and Kraus that it seems at least reasonably clear. As Kraus puts it, “The idea that Yahweh is addressed in v. 6 could of course be suggested here if one disregards the context.”
[6] See the very helpful discussion in, McGrath 2009, pp. 23-37.
[7] Even here, the best interpretation of the available evidence may be that some Jews were even willing to sacrifice to YHWH in foreign temples as long as it was not offered in front of an idol. See McGrath 2009 pp. 32-34 for fuller discussion. Even a strongly monotheistic text like the Wisdom of Solomon is strictly targeting iconic worship. 
[8] The author of the Letters of Aristeas would fall in this category and the views of much of the religious elite probably correspond.
[9] This element of the discussion is unfortunately lacking in Bauckham’s 2008 work and significantly weakens it, in my opinion. It is very unclear to me how the Son of Man in 1 Enoch is an exception that proves the rule, as he claims on p. 16. It seems to fit in with other evidence that McGrath includes that is not noted by Bauckham and will in fact be the critical piece of the puzzle in this paper.
[10] See translation available here: accessed 4/14/2014.
[11] Blount 2009, ad loc.
[12] Keener 1999, ad loc.
[13] Malina and Pilch 2000, ad loc., point out that in Greco-Roman culture, kings are semi-divine and worthy to receive revelation. As we saw above, this was not an unparalleled claim in Early Judaism either.
[14] Ibid.
[15] Beale 1999, ad loc. nicely lays out the parallels between vv. 3-5 and vs. 9.
[16] Ibid.4
[17] Blount 2009, ad loc.


For Further Reading: